NIH: Stethoscopes or Maybe "Bacterioscopes"
Fasicating article on Stethoscopes.
"The stethoscope remains an indispensable diagnostic tool for medical students. Improper stethoscope hygiene may cause bacterial infections, including hospital-associated infections (HAIs), which challenge the Polish medical system. The study's main objective was to evaluate the hygiene habits declared by medical students. Moreover, microbiological control with the characteristics of potentially pathogenic microorganisms was performed."